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Moscow «doubles»

Moscow «doubles»

Often on the facades of Moscow buildings you can find » doubles «. It can be the same masks of lions, almost identical images of Mercury or Satire and even whole compositions repetitive on the facades of different buildings.

Masks (mascarons) of lions often used in the early 19th century are quite understandable. Gavriil Tikhonovich Zamaraev, outstanding master of decorative and monumental sculpture worked and collaborated with many architects at this time in Moscow. He designed not only unique sculptural orders (Moscow University, the Armory Chamber, Ostankino Palace, etc.), but also made (molded by pattren) in his own sculptural workshop these all the same mascarons with lions. Here are two examples of mascaron-twins with a lion from Zamaraev’s studio: 1st photo — the building of the University on Mokhovaya. The 2nd photo is a mascaron on the facade of the mansion of Kheraskov-Razumovsky on Tverskaya.

  Mokhovay,  11   Tverskay, 21

 

If you specify the Category — Mascaron (or  Mask, if the image is not located on the capstone) on the project site www.mascaron.org  and the Object  — Leo, then you can easily find other twins of these lions. Some may have insignificant differences, but their «relationship» is beyond doubt. It can not be ruled out that some mascarons appeared on the facades and much later — at the end of the 19th and even the beginning of the 20th century. Most likely, for their manufacture, they used casts from Zamaraev’s «native» mascarons. So, such a mascaron appeared on the facade of the house 31 in Staraia Basmannaya only in the 20th century (during what renovation — 1913 or 1946?)

Staray Basmannay, 31

Cooperation of sculptor Zamaraev  with different architects and replicating his studio  masks explains the appearance of these «twins». But there are other less obvious «stories». So, a remarkable coincidence can be found at the buildings on Novaya Basmannaya, 28 and at Prechistenka 28. The first building  — the profitable house of 1905 was built by the architect N. N. Zherikhov, the second — in 1906 by architect L.N. Kekushev. Indeed, not only buildings numbers 28 (:) ) relate these two so different and each in its own remarkable buildings. It’s hard not to agree that male images (except for small details — different length of hair style 🙂 ), decorating the facades of these buildings are almost identical. Photos — New Basmannaya 28 (NN Zherkhov),  Prechistenka 28 (architect LN Kekushev). Who is the author of these sculptural elements of the facade decoration, and how it happened that two outstanding architects «repeated» the same image requires additional studying. Such a coincidence is all the more surprising because both architects designed (ordered ?)  unique facade decoration for almost every project.

 

  Novay Basmannay, 28   Prechistenka, 28

 

But not only individual masks have their own «doubles». Here is an example of twins — compositions. It is noteworthy that not only complete coincidences occur, but also partial use of the elements of the composition. So the panel in Plotnikov Lane 3, Ermolaevsky Lane 4, and on Sofiyskay Naberezhnay, 22 are completely identical.

  Plotnikov Lane, 3   Ermolaevsky Lane, 4
  Sofiyskay Naberezhnay, 22

But in the compositions in Maly Mogiltsevsky Lane 4 and in the 1st Basmanny Lane 6 there is no figure of a dancing girl.

  Maly Mogiltsevsky Lane, 4   1st Basmanny Lane, 6

Note there is a panel in Skaterny Lane 5 in which only two figures are «quoted» — a dancer and a dancing couple, but there is a «new» own pair.

In the following photos — one more example of twins — compositions. Malyi Palashevsky 7 and Verkhnaya Radishchevskaya street 11.

  Malyi Palashevsky, 7  Verkhnaya Radishchevskaya street, 11

Here is another example of such panel-twins. In contrast to previous ones, based on their earlier samples of classical works of art ), these compositions date back to the beginning of the 20th century. Krivoarbatsky lane.  13 and Malaya Bronnaya Str. 22

  Krivoarbatsky lane. 13   Malaya Bronnaya Str. 22

On many buildings that are related to the sphere of «business» (bank buildings, own or profitable houses of industrialists or merchants, trade associations, etc.) the image of Mercury (Hermes) — the God of Trade was used to decorate the facades. And in this case, you can easily find duplicates. For example, the Mercury mask on the building of the Profitable House of the Moscow Merchant Bank (Ilnka 14, 1820s-1830s, architect OI Bove, 1894, architect B.V. Freidenberg) and Mercury on the building in Plotnikov Lane 3 (profitable house P.D. Akhlestysheva and RG Kravets, 1910-ies, architect RG Kravets). Our project is not exactly known the authors of these sculptural works.

  Il’inka, 14   Plotnikov Lane, 3

But what is even more amazing …. In the city of Orel on Moskovskaya Street 26 – the building of the merchant V.V. Appolonov, built in 1897, supposedly the architect Mikhail Mikhailovich Puhalsky, Mercury exists too. Even with damaged wings (yet the Orel suffered during the war) does this Orel’s  Mercury remind of our two Moscow Mercury?

(By the way, on the doors preserved, according to Orel local historians, it is native carved wooden masks of lions the end of the 19th century!)

Here, in this post  there is a small and far from complete list of «doubles» on the Moscow (and not only) facades.   By specifying a certain type of object in the Gallery mode on www.mascaron.org, it is easy to find more matches within the Garden Ring.

If the names of architects can be easily found in different web sources, this, unfortunately, can not be said about the sculptors who decorated the facades of their buildings. It is only in special studies and scientific works that one can learn not only about the sculptural studios of G.T. Zamaraev, I.P. Vitali, but also about such masters of the first half of the 19th century, as  I.T. Timofeev, Santini Campioni, B.I. Orlovsky, Salvatore Penn, I.E. Emelyanov, I.L. Meshkov et al. ( Tsaryova S.М. Sources of scenes of sculptural decoration on the facades of Moscow buildings in the style of neoclassicism (late 19th — early 20th century) // Architectural heritage. Issue. 63. St. Petersburg: Kolo, 2015. P. 109-119  http://www.archiheritage.org/items/101/76/istochniki-syuzhetov-skulpturnogo-dekora-na-fasadah-moskovskih-zdanij-v-stile-neoklassitsizma-konets-XIX-nachalo-hh-v.html )  Also in the special literature and scientific works you can find references to the masters of the second half of the 19th century — the beginning of the 20th, some of which could inherit the workshops, in part even the forms (pattern) of their predecessors.  In Moscow worked and owned their studios  such masters as: N.A. Zakharov, SA. Pozhiltsov and A.P. Chernyshov, V.L. Gladkov and V.A. Kozlov (AS Kozlov), Georg Paul. And some sculptors, carried out orders to create a facade decoration from these studios, for example, S.T. Konenkov — from  of  studio of «V.L. Gladkova and V.A. Kozlov».  Working with many architects, these studios created unique decoration project (for example, on the facade of the house 14 in Ilyinka — the work of Kutyrin’s workshop), as well as  used «typical» molds (pattern) for casting facade decoration. This explains the appearance of  «twins» on the Moscow facades, some of which, apparently at the request of customers, were used in other cities of Russia.

Used links

  1. Царёва С.М. Новые сведения о скульптурной мастерской Кампиони в Москве // Декоративное искусство и предметно-пространственная среда. Вестник МГХПА / Московская государственная художественно-промышленная академия имени С.Г. Строганова. – М.: МГХПА, 2017. – № 4. Часть 2. С. 72 – 85.

Московские “двойники”

Московские “двойники”

 

Нередко на фасадах Московских зданий можно встретить “двойников”. Это могут быть одни и те же маски львов,  практически идентичные образы Меркурия или Сатира и даже целые композиции, повторяющиеся на фасадах разных зданий.

Часто используемые в начале 19 века маски (маскароны) львов вполне объяснимы. В это время в Москве работал и сотрудничал со многими архитекторами выдающийся мастер декоративно-монументальной скульптуры Гавриил Тихонович Замараев. Он выполнял не только уникальные скульптурные заказы (Московский Университет, Оружейная Палата, Останкинский дворец и др), но и производил (отливал по своим моделям) в собственной скульптурной мастерской и эти самые маскароны со львами.  Вот два примера маскаронов-двойников со  львом  из мастерской Замараева: 1 ая фотография – здание Университета на Моховой. 2-ая фотография – маскарон на фасаде  усадьбы М.М. Хераскова, Л.К, Разумовского на Тверской.

 Моховая, 11  Тверская,  21

Если на сайте проекта www.mascaron.org  указать Категорию — Маскарон (или маска, если изображение расположено не на замковом камне) и Объект – Лев, то без труда можно найти и других двойников этих львов. Некоторые могут иметь несущественные отличия, но их “родство” не вызывает сомнений. Нельзя исключить, что какие-то маскароны  появились на фасадах и существенно позже – в конце 19 и даже начале 20 века.  Скорее всего,  для их изготовления использовали слепки с “родных” маскаронов Замараева. Например, такой маскарон появился на фасаде дома 31 по Старой Басманной только в 20 веке (во время перестройки — 1913 года)

Старая Басманная, 31

Если сотрудничество скульптора Замараева с разными архитекторами и тиражирование масок его мастерской объясняет появление этих “двойников”, то встречаются и другие, не столь очевидные “истории”. Так, примечательное совпадение можно обнаружить  у зданий на Новой Басманной, 28 и на Пречистенке 28.   Первый дом — доходный дом  1905 года построил архитектор Н.Н Жерихов, второй – в 1906 архитектор Л.Н. Кекушев.  Действительно, не только номера домов  28   🙂 роднят эти два столь разных и каждое  по-своему замечательные  здания.  Трудно не согласиться, что мужские образы (за исключением небольших деталей  — разная длина прически 🙂 ),  украшающие фасады этих зданий  практически идентичны.  Фотографии ниже  –Новая Басманная 28 (Н.Н Жерихов ),  Пречистенка 28 (архитектор Л.Н. Кекушев). Кто автор этих скульптурных элементов фасадного декора, и как получилось , что два выдающихся архитектора “повторили” один и тот же образ требует дополнительного исследования. Такое совпадение тем более удивительно, что оба архитектора практически для каждого своего проекта делали (заказывали ?) уникальный фасадный декор.

  Новая Басманная 28   Пречистенка 28

Но не только отдельные маски имеют своих “двойников”.  Вот пример двойников – композиций. Примечательно, что имеют место не только полные совпадения, но и частичное использование элементов композиции. Так панно в Плотниковом переулке 3, Ермолаевской переулке 4,   и на Софийской набережной  22 полностью идентичны.

  Плотников переулок, 3   Ермолаевский переулок, 4
  Софийская набережная,  22

А вот в композициях в  Малом Могильцевском переулке  4 и в 1-ом Басманном переулке 6  отсутствует фигура танцующей девушки.

  Малый Могильцевский переулок,  4   1-ый Басманный переулок, 6

Заметим, что в Скатерном переулке 5 есть панно, в котором  “цитируются” только две фигуры – танцовщица и танцующая пара, но присутствует своя,  “новая” пара.

На следующих фотографиях – еще один пример  композиций-двойников.  Малый Палашевский 7  и Верхняя Радищевская улица 11.

  Малый Палашевский, 7   Верхняя Радищевская улица, 11

Вот еще один пример таких панно-двойников. В отличии от  предыдущих, использующих в основе своей ранние образцы классических произведений искусства, эти  композиции относятся уже к началу 20 века.  Кривоарбатский пер.  Дом: 13   и  Малая Бронная ул. Дом: 22

  Кривоарбатский пер.  Дом: 13   Малая Бронная ул. Дом: 22

На многих зданиях, так  или иначе  имеющих отношение к сфере “предпринимательства”  (здания банков, собственные  или доходные дома промышленников или купцов, торговых товариществ и пр.)  для оформления  фасадов использовался образ Меркурия (Гермеса)– Бога Торговли. Вот , например, маска Меркурия на здании Доходного дом Московского купеческого банка (Ильнка 14, 1820-е — 1830-е, арх. О. И. Бове;  1894 , арх. Б. В. Фрейденберг ) и Меркурий на здании в Плотниковом переулке 3 (доходный дом П.Д. Ахлестышева и Р.Г. Кравец. 1910-е гг, арх. Р.Г. Кравец.). Нашему проекту точно не известны авторы этих скульптурных работ.

  Ильинка,  14   Плотников пер., 3

Но что еще более удивительно…. В городе Орел на Московской улице 26 – дом купца В.В. Апполонова, постройки 1897 года, предположительно архитектор Михаил Михайлович Пухальский тоже есть Меркурий. Даже с поврежденными крылышками (все же Орел пострадал в годы войны) не напоминает ли этот, Орловский Меркурий наших двух Московских Меркуриев ?

(Кстати на дверях сохранились, как утверждают Орловские краеведы,  родные, конца 19 века резные деревянные маски львов ! )

В настоящем обзоре приведен небольшой и далеко не полный перечень “двойников”  на Московских (и не только) фасадах.   Указав на сайте www.mascaron.org  определенный тип объекта,  в режиме Галереи легко найти больше совпадений в пределах Садового кольца.

Если имена архитекторов достаточно легко можно найти в открытых источниках, то этого, к сожалению, не скажешь о скульпторах, оформлявших  фасады их зданий. Только лишь в специальных исследованиях, научных работах можно узнать не только о мастерских Г.Т Замараева, И.П. Витали, но и о таких мастерах первой половины 19 века, как,  И.Т. Тимофеев, Сантино Кампиони, Б.И. Орловский, Салвавторе Пенна, И.Е. Емельянов, И.Л. Мешков  и др.  ( Царёва С.М. Источники сюжетов скульптурного декора на фасадах московских зданий в стиле неоклассицизма (конец 19 — начало 20 века) // Архитектурное наследство. Вып. 63. СПб.: Коло, 2015. С. 109-119  http://www.archiheritage.org/items/101/76/istochniki-syuzhetov-skulpturnogo-dekora-na-fasadah-moskovskih-zdanij-v-stile-neoklassitsizma-konets-XIX-nachalo-hh-v.html ) Также в специальной литературе и научных исследованиях можно найти и упоминания о мастерах второй  половины 19 века – начала 20, некоторые из которых могли наследовать мастерские, частично даже и формы (модели)  своих предшественников.  В Москве работали и имели свои мастерские такие мастера как: Н.А. Захаров,  С.А. Пожильцов и  А.П. Чернышов,  В.Л. Гладков и В.А. Козлов (А.С. Козлов), Георг Поль. Некоторые скульпторы, выполняли заказы по созданию фасадного декора от этих мастерских, например,  С.Т Коненков — от мастерской В.Л. Гладкова и В.А. Козлова Работая со многими архитекторами, в этих мастерских создавались как уникальные работы (например, как на фасаде дома 14 по Ильинке – работа мастерской Кутырина), так использовались и “типовые” формы  (модели) для отливки фасадного декора.  Это и объясняет появление “двойников” на Московских фасадах, некоторые из которых, видимо, по желанию заказчиков, использовались и в других городах России.

При подготовке  обзора использовались материалы:

  1. Царёва С.М. Новые сведения о скульптурной мастерской Кампиони в Москве // Декоративное искусство и предметно-пространственная среда. Вестник МГХПА / Московская государственная художественно-промышленная академия имени С.Г. Строганова. – М.: МГХПА, 2017. – № 4. Часть 2. С. 72 – 85.

The Secret of Two Lions.

 Grotto «Ruins»  lions for Alexander Garden

Passing through the Alexander Garden, near the Kremlin wall, you can not fail to pay attention to the Italian grotto «Ruins.» The creation of the «Kremlin Gardens», as they were originally called, is inextricably connected with the name of Osip Bove and  the victory over the Napoleonic troops. And the mainsail itself, in the base of which fragments of white-stone buildings suffered in the fire were used, according to the plan, Beauvais also symbolized the revival of Moscow, which was destroyed after the events of 1812.


Looking at the grotto, listening to the stories of guides or reading the descriptions of this monument, as a rule, no one has any doubt about the historical authenticity of the current image of the grotto «Ruins». And a pair of lions, located on the sides of the upper platform of the grotto do not stay questions. It would seem that these white-stone lions are quite appropriate here — the lion, the image of power and strength, as it were, continues the symbolism laid in the design of the historical fence (architect Yevgeny Pascal), which contains fascia  (http://mascaron.org/?pid=1359 ) and medallions with images of the head of the lion and the gorgon.

But in reality things are not so simple with these lions on the grotto «Ruins»….
Turning to the official site of the Kremlin’s museums, we find: «… The Grotto acquired a modern look after the restoration of 1958-1959 … .. In this period almost completely lost columnar portico and fence of the upper platform with figures of stone lions were recreated …» (https: //www.kreml.ru/research/research-and-projects.sadovo-parkovyy-pavilon-grot/2004/). And in the publication «Architectural Monuments of Moscow Kremlin, China City, Moscow», «Art», 1982 in the description of the Alexander Garden and the grotto «Ruins» (p. 482) it says: «The upper hill area served for the orchestra; flanking its fence sculptures of lions were lost and now recreated by analogy. »
What kind did the grotto have before its «modern look»? Let’s turn to the photo documents. Here are photos of the grotto in the early 20th century — dating back to 1911, 1920. And also photographs of the late 19th century — 1890-1900 (1860th?)

But in reality things are not so simple with these lions on the grotto  «Ruins» ….
Turning to the official site of the Kremlin’s museums, we find: «… The Grotto acquired a modern look after the restoration of 1958-1959 … In this period almost completely lost columnar portico and fence of the upper platform with figures of stone lions were recreated …» (https://www.kreml.ru/research/research-and-projects.sadovo-parkovyy-pavilon-grot/2004//). And in the issue «Architectural Monuments of Moscow Kremlin, China City, Moscow», «Art», 1982 in the description of the Alexander Garden and the grotto «Ruins» (p. 482) it says: «The upper hill area served for the orchestra; flanking its fence sculptures of lions were lost and now recreated by analogy. »
How did the grotto looked like before its «modern look»? Let’s turn to the photo documents. Here are photos of the grotto in the early 20th century — dating back to 1910, 1911, 1920.

It is clearly seen that there are no lions «flanking the fence».

And also photograph of the late 19th century — 1890-1900 (1860th?) with great certainty it can be argued shows the right part of the upper platform of the mainsail, and there is no lion there either.

And on the engraving of the 1853 year (I Sharleman, 1824-1870), the top platform of the grotto with the sitting visitors is also clearly indicated, but … again there are no lions.

And, finally, engraving already of the middle of the 19th century (the Cathedral of Christ the Savior is not yet erected) also does not allow to assume the presence of «flanking fence» of lions.

The project expresses great gratitude to the staff of the photographic department  of the Shchusev Museum of Architecture, who kindly provided an opportunity to get acquainted with their archive. Not a single photo of the beginning of the 20th century of the grotto «Ruins» found lions. Photos, which firstly appear lions on the grotto «Ruins», date back to 1959-1960 years, which corresponds to the Kremlin museum (see above).

Perhaps, among the documents of the Expedition of the Kremlin building, some materials have survived, which allowed the specialists of the specialized restoration workshop of the “Mosproekt” Institute to recreate lions in the grotto “Ruins” in the middle of the 20th century. These documents (if they exist!) are not known for our project. So, relying on the above photo documents (and other graphic images) only, we can assume that the presence of lions on the grotto «Ruins» looks like foreign, incorporated «smear», distorting original the author’s look of the grotto, conceived by Osip Bove. By the way, we note that in the guides of the late 19th century there is no mention of lions on the Italian grotto of the Alexander Garden.

But on this the  «secret» of these two lions from the Alexander Garden does not end ….
So if it is possible to state (with a high probability) that according to Osip Bove’s idea there were no lions at the grotto, then the question should  be stated.  What  analogue has been used to “recreate” the current «inhabitants» of the grotto  (lions) «, as the documents cited above indicate? It turned out that these analogues now «live» just a few hundred meters from the Alexander Garden, on Vozdvizhenka street, in the courtyard of the Museum of Architecture named by Shchusev.

The paired photographs of a lion from the Museum of Architecture and from the Alexander Garden are presented below.

 
   

Indeed, the simplest comparison, so called  «with the naked eye,» shows that, firstly, there is obviously a complete similarity of the pose, secondly, all the lions have completely identical ancient Egyptian royal headdress — the claft. Further more — no doubt the identity of the «facial expression», the same «solution» of the claws down to the claws, the position of the tail. And even more convincing evidence: the «decoration» (or the lower part?) гnder the ear … and the same number of teeth indicated in the mouth. It is clear that there is a different state of the stone, but with  the photography increasing, the some partially lost details on the figure of the lion from Vozdvizhenka are «readable» and, recreated on the figures of lions from the Alexander Garden

Thus, there is every reason to believe that both the «Ruins» grotto and the yard of the Museum of Architecture have the same lions created by stone carvers at different times. Lions reclining on the grotto «Ruins» in the Alexander Garden — it’s just a modern copy of historically lions from the Museum of Architecture. And their «motherland», as it is indicated by a sign in the courtyard of the museum — the estate of Kheraskov-Razumovsky, also know as  “English club” on Tverskaya

When it comes to the homestead of Kheraskov-Razumovsky, first of all, remember the famous «lions on the gate,» about which Pushkin wrote in the novel «Eugene Onegin.» But they appeared under Lev (Leo) Kirillovich Razumovsky at the beginning of the 19th century only. But these lions are statues of the 18th century, and according to experts of the Museum of Architecture, were taken out from … the garden of this manor in the 30s (?) years of the 20th century. The garden once extended beyond the manor to the present Trekhprudny Lane. Since 1935 on the territory of the Donskoy Monastery after the establishment of the State Scientific-Research Museum of Architecture named by A.V. Shchusev has housed its exhibits. It was here that the lions were taken out of the garden of the estate of Kheraskov-Razumovsky. But already in the 90th years of the 20th century, when the territory of the monastery was transferred to the hands of the ROC, the exhibits of the museum, including these lions, were moved to Vozdvizhenka.

A huge gratitude to those staff members of the museum, real “brother-in-arms” who managed to literally save in the late nineties of the last century priceless monuments of history and culture. In this photo, the very moment when the lions from the estate of Kheraskov was transported to the Vozdvizhenka courtyard from the Donskoy monastery is preserved for history.


What a difficult story hides behind, it would seem, such a well-known monument in the heart of Moscow. Obviously, this valuable monument for Moscow actually has now a new look, somewhat different from its original, conceived by the great Osip Bove.
No less surprising is the fate of the lions from the estate of Kheraskov-Razumovsky. They, these lions, visited the 18th century and in the garden near Trekhprudny Lane, and two centuries later in the Donskoi Monastery, and now in Vozdvizhenka. And their modern «clones» have for more than half a century already been put on guard at all «not their» historical monument — the Italian grotto «Ruins» of the Alexander Garden.